IKZ Winter School 2019: 'International Lectures on Crystal Growth' / 09. - 13. Dezember 2019


Monday, December 09 - Friday, December 13, 2019        


Max-Born-Saal / Max-Born-Str. 2a / 12489 Berlin


Prof. Dr. Peter Rudolph
Crystal Technology Consulting

The Summer school will be held in English language



The lectures will be given by the well-known specialist on crystallization processes and crystal growth technology Prof. Dr. Peter Rudolph (CTC) which was employed at IKZ from 1994 until 2011.
His lectures were already held in more than 20 countries around the world demonstrating the strong international demand for this advanced field but also contributing to overcoming the vacant education and training chances for related specialists.

Besides the lectures one afternoon is scheduled to increase the reciprocal knowledge of the participant’s research fields. Using short presentations, the attendees brief each other on their current research projects and report on current problems, challenges and results of their work.

Generally, the whole week will be used for lively debate about the important role of material science and crystal growth for today and future society.

Scope of  lecture course

International Lectures on Crystal Growth 
Methods, Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Transport, Defects

Crystal growth is a high tech interdisciplinary science. Today, the branches of modern information society, energy conversion and storage, traffic circulation, astronautics and medicine are depending on electronic and optical devices based on semiconductor and oxide single crystals as well as epitaxial layer structures. The increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy.

This requires the absolute continuous improvement and expansion of the specialists working in this field. It is the strong determination of IKZ to contribute to the education and training of students and young researchers but also to the continuous knowledge refreshing of already established crystal growers and material scientists. The lecture course is aimed on a considerable contribution to this.

The course includes the whole range of fundamentals of crystal growth and related defect generation. In order to study and repeat the key relationships within a relative short time effectively the presentations are composed straightforwardly. However, numerous proper correlations between fundamentals and modern favorable technological solutions in bulk and epitaxial growth are represented. For more specific requirements helpful study references will be given.

Technical program

                   Monday, December 09, 2019                                                           
   I. Introduction and growth methods overview 12:00    -    13:30 p.m.
  II. Thermodynamics for crystal growers 14:00 - 16:00 p.m.
    Tuesday, December 10, 2019        
  III. Kinetics of growth processes (Part 1) 10:00 - 12:00 a.m.
    Kinetics of growth processes (Part 2)  14:00 - 16:00 p.m.
    Wednesday, December 11, 2019        
  IV. Transport of heat and mass  10:00 - 12:00 a.m.
    Participant self-introductions – free discussion      
14:00 - 17:00 p.m.
    Joint dinner of the participants     18:00 p.m.
    Thursday, December 12, 2019        
  V. Fundamentals and Engineering of Defects (Part 1)           10:00 - 12:00 a.m.
    Fundamentals and Engineering of Defects (Part 2) 14:00 - 16:00 p.m.
    Friday, December 13, 2019        
    Fundamentals and Engineering of Defects (Part 3) 10:00 - 12:00 a.m.
    Certificate Ceremony for the Participants 12:15 - 13:00 p.m.


Lecture specifications

Bilder www 1The Introductory Lecture shows the inter-disciplinary character of crystal growth, the importance of combination of the 3 main-stays thermodynamics, kinetics and transport, gives selected crystallographic requisites and summarizes methods of bulk and epitaxial crystal growth from a historical and modern challenging point of view.


Bilder www 2The Thermodynamics starts with differentiation between equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Crux of the matter is the dialectics of potential of Gibbs. After the  equilibrium between one- and multi-component phases by considering non-stoichiometry the role of surface energy is treated. The driving force of crystallization and nucleation fundamentals are discussed.


Bilder www 3The lecture on Kinetics starts with introduction to atomistic interface descriptions, faceting and roughening phenomena. After that the crystal growth modes and related velocities are compared. The effects of step bunching and role of dislocations and impurities are added. Selected examples of numeric modelling are shown and illustrated.


Bilder www 4Heat and Mass Transfer are treated by considering the importance of thermal flux, radiation, diffusion and convection on crystal growth quality. Their sensitive influence on the boundary layers at the propagating interface and material homogeneity are demonstrated. Instructive results of global 3D numeric modelling are shown. Finally, advanced external control methods, such as accelerated container rotation, ultrasonic vibration and magnetic fields are discussed.

Bilder www 5The fundamentals on Defect generation are shown in the classical context – 1. point defects, 2. dislocations, 3. grain boundaries, facets, twins, 4. second phase particles. Special attention is given to the non-stoichiometry related point defects and precipitations, dislocation cell patterning, dislocations dynamics at epitaxial processes, faceting and twinning at bulk growth. Today there exists an enormous knowledge about the defect genesis. However, there are still unsolved problems of controlling, particularly, in case of high-temperature, high-dissociative substances. The lecture aims at suggestions for improved defect engineering.


          External students and PHDs   50
  External academic researchers        250
  Industrial employees  500
  IKZ employees   free of charge


  • This Winter School is addressed to employees of the Leibniz Insitute for Crystal Growth, but also students and PhDs from external institutes are welcome. If you are interested in attending this year's Summer School please send an email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. with details of your institution and position (e.g. student bachelor / master / specialisation, PhD, scientist...). As space is limited the number of attendees is limited to 60.
  •  All guests are asked to take care of their overnight stays themselves. There are several hotels available nearby. A timely reservation is strongly recommended.

    Registration deadline: December 01, 2019

CV Lecturer Prof. Dr. Peter Rudolph

Portraet P Rudolf









Prof. Dr. Dr. habil. Peter Rudolph
Crystal Technology Consulting (CTC)

Education, qualifications and positions:
since 2011: self-employed at CTC
1994 - 2011 employed at the Institute of Crystal Growth in Berlin
head of competence field technology developments
1993 - 1994, 1998: Visiting Professor at the Institute for Materials Research of Tohoku University in Sendai (Japan)
1985 - 1993: University Professor for Crystallography and Materials Science
at the Humboldt University in Berlin (Germany)
1980 - 1985: Lecturer (Docent) of Technical Crystallography and Crystal Growth at the Humboldt University in Berlin
1979: Dr. sc. nat. (habil) of Crystallography (DSc) Thesis at the Humboldt University in Berlin on Shaped Crystal Growth
1972: PhD (Dr. engin.) of Electronic Technology Thesis at the Technical University in Lviv (Ukraina) on Thin Film Layers of CdSb on Insulating Substrates
1969: Diploma (Dipl. engin.) of Electronic Technology, Diploma thesis at the Technical University in Lviv on Development and Use of an Automatic Hall Equipment

293 (incl. 31 monographs/contributions, 8 editions, 35 patents, 13 book reviews), ca. 500 conference papers


> 3000 hrs university and school lectures
in Berlin, Halle, Freiberg, Freiburg, Jena (Germany), Ulan Bator (Mongolia), Madrid (Spain), Sendai, Osaka, Zao, Shiga (Japan), Monastir (Tunesia), Madras/Chennai, Bangalore (India), Lausanne, Beatenberg (Switzerland), Padua, Rimini, Trieste (Italy), Sao Paulo, Campinas (Brazil), La Pedrera (Uruguay), Puebla, Mexico City (Mexico), Riga (Latvia), Seoul (South Korea), Brasov (Romania), Dalian, Hangzhou, Xian (China), Grenoble, Lyon (France), Gdansk (Poland), Huntsville, Park City of Salt Lake City, Brookhaven Nat. Lab. (USA), Moscow (Russia), Prague (Czech. Republic)

Fundamentals of Phase Transition and Crystal Growth: Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Transport of Heat and Mass.
Fundamentals of Material Science, Physico-Chemical Crystallography, Crystal Defects - Dynamics and Engineering, Crystal Growth Technology, Applications of Single Crystals

Materials experiences:

Si, Ge, CdSb, InSb, GaAs, InP, GaP, CdTe, CdZnTe, HgCdTe, ZnSe, PbTe, PbSnTe, LiNbO3, PbWO4, eutectics (i.e. sapphire-YAG composition fibers), CZ- and mc-PV-Silicon

Growth methods:
vertical/horizontal Bridgman, shaped crystal growth (EFG), Czochralski growth (LEC, VCz), THM, fiber crystal growth, gas phase sublimation, microgravity experiments 1978 and 1993, growth under magnetic fields, Si ingot crystallization

Research fields:
growth technology of semiconductor compounds and oxides, stoichiometry, point defects, dislocation dynamics, segregation, convection,
theory of crystal growth (thermodynamics, kinetics, transport), melt structure, nonsteady magnetic fields, ultrasonic vibration

Industrial Cooperations:
Freiberger FCM GmbH/Germany, Steremat Berlin, Auteam, SolarValue, Bruker BK, Schott Solar Wafer, Solar World/USA, Intex Corp./USA, MCP Technol./UK, ECM Grenoble, Furukawa Co./Japan, Nihon Kessho Co./Japan, Neosemitec Co. Seoul/Korea, …

IUCr-Commission “Crystal Growth and Characterization” (- 2011), Member of Council of Int. Org. of Crystal Growth (- 2011) (IOCG), President of German Ass. of Crystal Growth (2010-11, Vice-President 2012-13), Head of DGKK working group “Kinetics” (- 2009), Scientific Council of IKZ Berlin (- 2011), Advisory Board of Solarregion Berlin-Brandenburg eV (2011-14), American Ass. for Crystal Growth, International Advisory Board of IMR of Tohoku University Sendai, Japan,

Editorial staffs:
Associate Editor of J. Crystal Growth, Advisory Board of the J. Crystal Research and Technology, International Editors Committee of Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology, Advisory Board of J. Functional Materials of Ukraina, Editorial staff of the newsletter of the German Association of Crystal Growth (DGKK) (- 2009)

Herder Medal at high-school-leaving, Berlin 1964; Medal of President of Academy of Science for crystal growth experiments in space aboard Sojuz-3 (1978); Medal of the German Association of Crystallography 1990; Winner of the
Innovation Prize Berlin-Brandenburg 2001 and 2008.


Registration:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Scientific contact:

Prof. Dr. Peter Rudolph

Crystal Technology Consulting
Helga-Hahnemann-Str. 57
12529 Schönefeld

Telefon: +49 3379 444253
E-Mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Organisational contact:

Stefanie Grüber
Leibniz-Institut für Kristallzüchtung (IKZ)
Max-Born-Str. 2
12489 Berlin

Telefon: +49-30-6392-3263
Fax: +49-30-6392-3003
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Matthias Bickermann

(Lecture is held in German)
Department of Chemistry
Technische Universität Berlin
Introduction to Basic Principles and Methods of Crystal Growth

PD Dr. Detlef Klimm

(Lecture is held in German, but English lecture notes are provided for download)
Department of Chemistry
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science I
Humboldt - Universität zu Berlin
Phase Diagrams

PD Dr. Martin Schmidbauer

(Lecture is held in German)
Department of Physics 
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science I
Humboldt - Universität zu Berlin
X-Ray Scattering: Basics and Applications in Materials Science

apl. Prof. Dr. Dietmar Siche

(Lecture is held in German)
Faculty Mathematics, Natural Science & Computer Science, 
Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg
Wachstum einkristalliner Materialien und ausgewählte Anwendungen

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