Working Group Silicon & Germanium - Summary

The growth of semiconductor crystals of high purity, structure perfection and sufficient size is and will remain the main basis for developing components of modern solid stats electronics from discrete germanium transistors of the nineteen-fifties up to the today’s ICs, on which up to several billions of transistor functions are integrated on one silicon chip.

Furthermore, these classical semiconductors are the basis for controlling and generating electric energy in power electronics and photovoltaics. For silicon especially the virtually unlimited global availability at low costs has to be emphasized, besides the universal material parameters. Frequently, research on these classics leads to approaches to new fields of development such as quantum electronics with isotopically pure silicon and thermoelectric energy converter with SiGe mixed crystals. The Leibniz Institute for Crystal is able to grow these crystals in very different proportions and led to effective X-ray and γ –monochromators.

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The most promising approach to a new, preciser definition of the kg mass unit based on a natural standard was developed under the guidance of the PTB Braunschweig. It is based on isotopically pure 28Si silicon crystals grown at the Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth with the aim to perfect the purity and structure.

Also basic research benefits from new materials. The almost vanishing inhomogeneous broadening of the spectral lines of these crystals allows us to clarify the structure of important silicon impurities and, furthermore, effects an unusually durable spin coherence which is interesting in the field of spintronics. For example, ultrapure germanium crystals are needed for highly sensitive radiation detectors as planned in the project GERDA. GERDA is focusing on a clarification of the neutrino double beta decay.

The group Si & Ge is predominantly using the floating zone (FZ) method  for growing crystals from silicon, including isotopically pure ones, as this method applies to be the most suitable one to receive results with the highest purity possible and also allows the targeted doping with acceptors  (e.g. B) and donators (e.g. Ph). Doping with “exotic” elements such as Bi, Ga , Al, Sb, Au, etc. have been partly used in modified methods like the 'pedestal growth'. At the moment, the four existing Float-Zone (FZ) machines allow the growth of crystals up to 150 mm diameter. Besides, there are several smaller Czochralski (CZ) machines available to grow smaller crystals from the crucible for Si (d<52mm), SixGe1-x(d<20…40mm) or doped Ge (d<76mm) which can be all adapted referring to their individual purpose if needed. A Special procedure for the crystal growth from small material quantities (e.g. from isotopically pure Si and Ge) or for thin Si rods (d=4…10mm) have been already developed and are ready for use.

Information on the solid-liquid interface of the crystal is necessary for process development and numeric process simulation, therefore, the group Si & Ge has developed a special method for photoelectric crystal diagnostics: the Lateral Photovoltage Scanning (LPS). There is diverse interest in these measurements and a demand for an offer of service, particularly, outside the Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth.

Key Publications

N.V. Abrosimov, S.N. Rossolenko, W. Thieme, A. Gerhardt, W. Schröder,
Czochralski Growth of Si- and Ge-Rich Single Crystals.
J CHRIST GROWTH 174 (1997) 182 - 186 

P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov
Enrichment of Silicon for a Better Kilogram.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 207 (2010) 49 - 66

A.M. Tyryshkin, S. Tojo, J.J.L. Morton, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, T. Schenkel, M.L.W. Thewalt, K.M. Itoh, S.A. Lyon
Electron Spin Coherence Exceeding Seconds in High-Purity Silicon Electron Spin Coherence Exceeding Seconds in High-Purity Silicon.
Nature Materials 11 (2012) 143 - 147

H.-J. Rost, R.Menzel, A.Luedge, H.Riemann
Float-Zone Silicon Crystal Growth at Reduced RFf Requencies.
J CHRIST GROWTH 360 (2012) 182 -186

Working Group Silicon & Germanium - Methods


  • FZ growth of dislocation free Si crystals up to 150 mm in diameter
  • Pedestal growth of long thin rods (slim rods)
  • Gas doping with Boron und Phosphorus in concentration range from 1012 to 1018 cm-3
  • Pill doping e.g. with transition metals
  • Doping with isoelectric impurity atoms (N, O, C, H, Sn, Ge...)
  • Mini-Cz growth of 28Si, 29Si, 30Si isotopic crystals
  • Global computer simulation for optimization of growth process


  • Cz- growth of n-and p-type Ge with diameter up to 50 mm
  • Gas phase doping with Boron and Phosphorus using mini-Cz technique
  • Cz growth of high purity Ge with diameter up to 76 mm in Hydrogen atmosphere
  • Mini-Cz growth of 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge and 76Ge isotopic crystals
  • Zone refining of Ge


Silicon & Germanium

  • Development of growth methods for Silicon-Germanium crystal growth
  • Growth of GeSi-crystals by using the Cz technique for continuous feeding of the Ge melt with solving Si rods
  • Automatic control of the crystal growth on the base of crystal weighing
  • Growth of SiGe gradient crystals for X-ray and γ-ray monochromators

Working Group Silicon & Germanium - Publications

T. Mchedlidze,  J. Weber, N. V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Deep carrier traps in as grown isotopically pure 28Si FZ crystal
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 214 (2017) 1700238 

L. I. Khirunenko, M. G. Sosnin, A. V. Duvanskii, N. V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Electronic absorption of interstitial boron-related defects in silicon
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 214 (2017) 1700245

R. Stübner, V. Kolkovsky, J. Weber, N. V. Abrosimov 
Carbon-hydrogen related defects in SiGe observed after dc H plasma treatment 
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 214 (2017) 1700329

W. Miller, A. Popescu 
Micro structures in the grain evolution during solidification of silicon: Phase field calculations
ACTA MATER 140 (2017) 1 - 9

M. Pillaca, O. Harder, W. Miller, P. Gille
Forced convection by Inclined Rotary Bridgman method for growth of CoSb3 and FeSb2 single crystals from Sb-rich solutions
J CRYST GROWTH 475 (2017) 346 – 353

B. C. Rose, A. M. Tyryshkin, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, M. L. W. Thewalt, K. M. Itoh, S. A. Lyon
Coherent Rabi Dynamics of a Superradiant Spin Ensemble in a Microwave Cavity
PHYS REV X 7 (2017) 031002

N. Arutyunov, V. Emtsev, M. Elsayed, R. Krause-Rehberg, N. Abrosimov, G. Oganesyan, V. Kozlovski
Positron probing of open vacancy volume of phosphorus-vacancy complexes in float-zone n-type silicon irradiated by 0.9-MeV electrons and by 15-MeV protons
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI C 14 (2017) 1700120

N. V. Abrosimov, D. G. Aref’ev, P. Becker, H. Bettin, A. D. Bulanov, M. F. Churbanov, S. V. Filimonov, V. A. Gavva, O. N. Godisov, A. V. Gusev, T. V. Kotereva, D. Nietzold, M. Peters, A. M. Potapov, H.-J. Pohl, A. Pramann, H. Riemann, P.-T. Scheel, R. Stosch, S. Wundrack, S. Zakel
A new generation of 99.999% enriched 28Si single crystals for the determination of Avogadro’s constant
METROLOGIA 54 (2017) 599 – 609 

R. Menzel, K. Dadzis, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Crystal diameter stabilization during growth of Si from agranulate crucible
in: E. Baake, B. Nacke (eds.), Proceedings of XVIII International UIE-Congress on Electrotechnologies for Material Processing
Hannover (2017) 215 - 220

Y. A. Astrov, V. B. Shuman, L. М. Portsel, А. N. Lodygin, S. G. Pavlov, N. V. Abrosimov, V. N. Shastin, H.-W. Hübers
Diffusion doping of silicon with magnesium
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 214 (2017) 1700192

N. Deßmann, S. G. Pavlov, V. V. Tsyplenkov, E. E. Orlova, A. Pohl, V. N. Shastin, R. Kh. Zhukavin, S. Winner, M. Mittendorff, J. M. Klopf, N. V. Abrosimov, H. Schneider, H.-W. Hübers
Dynamics of non-equilibrium charge carriers in p-germanium doped by gallium
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI B 254 (2017) 1600803

K. Lauer, Ch. Möller, Ch. Teßmann, D. Schulze, N. V. Abrosimov
Activation energies of the InSi-Si, defect transitions obtained by carrier lifetime measurements
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI C 14 (2017) 1600033

M. F. Churbanov, V. A. Gavva, A. D. Bulanov, N. V. Abrosimov, E. A. Kozyrev, I. A. Andryushchenko, V. A. Lipskii, S. A. Adamchik, O. Yu. Troshin, A. Yu. Lashkov, A. V. Gusev 
Production of germanium stable isotopes single crystals
CRYST RES TECHNOL 52 (2017) 1700026
doi: 10.1002/crat.201700026

D. Borisova, N. V. Abrosimov, K. Shcherbachev, V. Klemm, G. Schreiber, D. Heger, U. Juda, V. Bublik, H. Oettel
Evolution of Real Structure in Ge-Si Mosaic Crystals    
CRYST RES TECHNOL 51 (2016) 742 – 751
doi: 10.1002/crat.201600248

Yu. M. Pokotilo, A. N. Petukh, V. V. Litvinov, V. P. Markevich, N. V. Abrosimov, A. S. Kamyshan, A. V. Giro,  K. A. Solyanikova
Formation of Donors in Germanium–Silicon Alloys Implanted with Hydrogen Ions with Different Energies
SEMICONDUCT 50 (2016) 1122 – 1124
doi: 10.1134/S1063782616080182

L. I. Khirunenko, M. G. Sosnin, A. V. Duvanskii, N. V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Defects Involving Interstitial Boron in Low-Temperature Irradiated Silicon
PHYS REV B 94  (2016) 235210
doi: org/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.235210

D. P. Franke, M. Szech, F. M. Hrubesch, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, K. M. Itoh, M. L.W. Thewalt, M. S. Brandt
Electron Nuclear Double Resonance with Donor-Bound Excitons in Silicon
PHYS REV B 94 (2016) 235201
doi: org/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.235201

V. V. Emtsev, N. V. Abrosimov, V. V. Kozlovskii, G. A. Oganesyan, and D. S. Poloskin
Some Challenging Points in the Identification of Defects in Floating-Zone n-Type Silicon Irradiated with 8 and 15 MeV Protons
SEMICONDUCT 50 (2016) 1291 – 1298    
doi: 10.1134/S1063782616100122

N. Arutyunov, N. Bennett, N. Wight, R. Krause-Rehberg, V. Emtsev, N. Abrosimov, V. Kozlovski
Positron Probing of Disordered Regions in Neutron-Irradiated Silicon
PHYS STAT SOLIDI B 253 (2016) 2175 - 2179
doi: 10.1002/pssb.201600644

A. V. Andrianov, A. O. Zakhar’in, R. Kh. Zhukavin, V. N. Shastin, D. V. Shengurov, N. V. Abrosimov
Terahertz Emission at Impurity Electrical Breakdown in Si(Li)
TECH PHYS LETT 42 (2016) 1031 - 1033
doi: 10.1134/S1063785016100163

K. A. Kovalevsky, R. Kh. Zhukavin, V. V. Tsyplenkov, S. G. Pavlov, H.-W. Hübers, N. V. Abrosimov, V. N. Shastin    
Polarization of the Induced THz Emission of Donors in Silicon
SEMICONDUCT 50 (2016) 1673 - 1677
doi: 10.1134/S106378261612010

K.J. Morse, R.J.S. Abraham, D.P. Franke, N.V. Abrosimov, M.L.W. Thewalt
Even-Parity Excited States of the Acceptor Boron in Silicon Revisited.
PHYS REV B 93 (2016) 125207
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.125207

A.P. Detochenko, S.A. Denisov, M.N. Drozdov, A.I. Mashin, V.A. Gavva, A.D. Bulanov, A.V. Nezhdanov, A.A. Ezhevskii, M.V. Stepikhova, V.Yu. Chalkov, V.N. Trushin, D.V. Shengurov, V.G. Shengurov, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Epitaxially Grown Monoisotopic Si, Ge, and Si1–xGex Alloy Layers: Production and Some Properties.
SEMICONDUCT 50 (2016) 345 - 348

A.V. Soukhorukov, D.V. Guseinov, A.V. Kudrin, S.A. Popkov, A.P. Detochenko, A.V. Koroleva, A.A. Ezhevskii, A.A. Konakov, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
The Impurity Spin-Dependent Scattering Effects in the Transport and Spin Resonance of Conduction Electrons in Bismuth Doped Silicon.
SOLID STATE PHENOM 242 (2016) 327 - 331

A.A. Ezhevskii, A.P. Detochenko, S.A. Popkov, A.A. Konakov, A.V. Soukhorukov, D.V. Guseinov, D.G. Zverev, G.V. Mamin, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Spin Relaxation Times of Donor Centers Associated with Lithium in Monoisotopic 28 Si.
SOLID STATE PHENOM 242 (2016) 322 - 326    

L. Khirunenko, M. Sosnin, A. Duvanskii, N. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Boron-Related Defects in Low Temperature Irradiated Silicon.
SOLID STATE PHENOM 242 (2016) 285-289

R. Stübner, Vl. Kolkovsky, J. Weber, N. Abrosimov
Carbon-Hydrogen Complexes in n- and p-Type SiGe-Alloys Studied by Laplace Deep Level Transient Spectroscopyin nCarbon-Hydrogen Complexes in n- and p-Type SiGe-Alloys Studied by Laplace Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy.
SOLID STATE PHENOM 242 (2016) 184 - 189

A. V. Soukhorukov, D.V. Guseinov, A.V. Kudrin, S. A. Popkov, A. P. Detochenko, A. V. Koroleva, A. A. Ezhevskii, A. A. Konakov, N. V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann    
The Impurity Spin-Dependent Scattering Effects in the Transport and Spin Resonance of Conduction Electrons in Bismuth Doped Silicon.   
SOLID STATE PHENOM 242 (2016) 327 - 331            

V. V. Emtsev, N. V. Abrosimov, V. V. Kozlovskii, G. A. Oganesyan    
Electrical Properties of Defects in Ga-Doped Ge Irradiated with Fast Electrons and Protons.
SOLID STATE PHENOM 242 (2016) 316 - 321            

L. Khirunenko, M. Sosnin, A. Duvanskii, N. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Boron-Related Defects in Low Temperature Irradiated Silicon.    
SOLID STATE PHENOM 242 (2016) 285 - 289                

N. Dropka, M. Czupalle, T. Ervik, F.M. Kiessling        
Scale up Aspects of Directional Solidification and Czochralski Silicon Growth Processes in Traveling Magnetic Fields.
J CRYST GROWTH 451 (2016) 95 - 102   

S. G. Pavlov, N. Deßmann, A. Pohl, V. B. Shuman, L. М. Portsel, А. N. Lodygin, Yu. A. Astrov,S. Winnerl, H. Schneider, N. Stavrias, A. F. G. van der Meer, V. V. Tsyplenkov, K. A. Kovalevsky, R. Kh. Zhukavin, V. N. Shastin, N. V. Abrosimov, H.-W. Hübers
Dynamics of Nonequilibrium Electrons on Neutral Center States of Interstitial Magnesium Donorsin Silicon.
PHYS REV B, 94 (2016) 075208-1

A. V. Andrianov, A. O. Zakhar’in, R. Kh. Zhukavin, V. N. Shastin, N. V. Abosimov,  A. V. Bobylev
Terahertz Intracenter Photoluminescence of Silicon with Lithium at Interband Excitation.
JETP Letters, Optics and Laser Physics 100 (2015)  771-775
doi: 10.1134/S0021364014240035

R. Lo Nardo, G. Wolfowicz, S. Simmons, A.M. Tyryshkin, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, M. Steger, S.A. Lyon, M.L.W. Thewalt, J.J.L. Morton
Spin Relaxation and Donor-Acceptor Recombination of Se+ in 28-Silicon.
PHYS REV B 92 (2015) 165201
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.165201

F. Meurer, M. Neubert, N. Werner
Nonlinear State Estimation for the Czochralski Process Based on the Weighing Signal Using an Extended Kalman Filter.
J CRYST GROWTH 419 (2015) 57 - 63            

K. Saeedi, M. Szech, P. Dluhy, J.Z. Salvail, K.J. Morse, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, N. Nötzel, K.L. Litvinenko, B.N. Murdin, M.L.W. Thewalt
Optical Pumping and Readout of Bismuth Hyperfine States in Silicon for Atomic Clock Applications.
Scientific Reports 5 (2015) 10493

J. Z. Salvail, P. Dluhy, K. J. Morse, M. Szech, K. Saeedi, J. Huber, H. Riemann, N. V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, M.L.W. Thewalt
Optically Enabled Magnetic Resonance Study of 75As and 121Sb in 28Si.
PHYS  REV B 92 (2015) 195203-1 - 195203-11
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.195203

P.G. Sennikov, R.A. Kornev, N.V. Abrosimov
Production of Stable Silicon and Germanium Isotopes via Their Enriched Volatile Compounds.
J RADIOANAL NUCL CH 306 (2015) 21 - 30

R.Kh. Zhukavin, K.A. Kovalevsky, M.L. Orlov, V.V. Tsyplenkov, N.A. Bekin, A.N. Yablonskiy, P.A. Yunin, S.G. Pavlov, N.V. Abrosimov, H.-W. Hübers, H.H. Radamson, V.N. Shastin
Terahertz-Range Spontaneous Emission Under the Optical Excitation 1f Donors in Uniaxially Stressed Bulk Silicon and SiGe/Si Heterostructures.
SEMICONDUCT 49 (2015) 13 - 18

N. Deßmann, S.G. Pavlov, A. Pohl, N.V. Abrosimov, S. Winnerl, M. Mittendorff, R.Kh. Zhukavin, V.V. Tsyplenkov, D.V. Shengurov, V.N. Shastin, H.-W. Hübers
Lifetime-Limited, Subnanosecond Terahertz Germanium Photoconductive Detectors.
APPL PHYS LETT 106 (2015) 171109

S.G. Pavlov, N. Deßmann, A. Pohl, N.V. Abrosimov, M. Mittendorff, S.Winnerl, R.Kh. Zhukavin, V.V. Tsyplenkov, D.V. Shengurov, V.N. Shastin, H.-W. Hübers
Towards a Life-Time-Limited 8-Octave-Infrared Photoconductive Germanium Detector.
J PHYS Conf. Series 647 (2015) 012070
doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/647/1/012070

M. Wünscher, R. Menzel, H. Riemann, A. Lüdge
Combined 3D and 2.5D Modelling of the Floating Zone Process with Comsol Multiphysics.
J CRYST GROWTH 385 (2014) 100 - 105

N.M. Barrière, J.A. Tomsick, S.E. Boggs, A. Lowell, C. Wade, M. Baugh, P. von Ballmoos, N.V. Abrosimov, L. Hanlon
Developing a Method for Soft Gamma-Ray Laue Lens Assembly and Calibration.
NUCL INSTR METH PHYS RES A 741 (2014) 47 - 56

H.-J. Rost, R. Menzel, H. Riemann, M. Wuenscher, S. Haufe
Improvement of the Growth Stability for Large Diameter Si-Float-Zone Crystals by Controlling the Gas Flow.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI  211 (2014) 2471 - 2474

S. Richter, M. Werner, M. Schley, F. Schaaff, H. Riemann, H.-J. Rost, F. Zobel, R. Kunert, P. Dold, C.Hagendorf
Influence of Slim Rod Material Properties to the Siemens Feed Rod and the Float Zone Process.
Energy Procedia 55 (2014) 596 - 601

M. Neubert, J. Winkler
Nonlinear Model-Based Control of the Czochralski Process IV: Feedforward Control and its Interpretation from the Crystal Grower's View.
J CRYST GROWTH 404 (2014) 210 - 222

S.G. Pavlov, N. Deßmann, V.N. Shastin, R.Kh. Zhukavin, B. Redlich, A.F.G. van der Meer, M. Mittendorff, S. Winnerl, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann, H.-W. Hübers
Terahertz Stimulated Emission from Silicon Doped by Hydrogenlike Acceptors.
PHYS REV X 4 (2014) 021009

N. Deßmann, S.G. Pavlov, V.N. Shastin, R.Kh. Zhukavin, V.V. Tsyplenkov, S. Winnerl, M. Mittendorff, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann, H.-W. Hübers
Time-Resolved Electronic Capture in N-Type Germanium Doped with Antimony.
PHYS REV B 89 (2014) 035205

G. Wolfowicz, A.M. Tyryshkin, R.E. George, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, M.L.W. Thewalt, S.A. Lyon, J.J.L. Morton
Atomic Clock Transitions in Silicon-Based Spin Qubits.
NAT NANOTECHNOL 8 (2013) 561 - 564

E. Bagli, L. Bandiera, V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari, D. De Salvador, G. Maggioni, A. Berra, D. Lietti, M. Prest, E. Vallazza, N.V. Abrosimov
Coherent Effects of High-Energy Particles in a Graded Si1-x Gex.
PHYS REV LETT 110 (2013) 175502

A.V. Gusev, V.A. Gavva, E.A. Kozyrev, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov
Crucibles for Czochralski Growth of Isotopically Enriched Silicon Single Crystals.
INORG MATER 49 (2013) 1167 - 1169

H. Wu, E.M. Gauger, R.E. George, M. Möttönen, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, K.M. Itoh, M.L.W. Thewalt, J.J.L. Morton
Geometric Phase Gates with Adiabatic Control in Electron Spin Resonance.
PHYS REV A 87 (2013) 032326

H.-W. Hübers, S.G. Pavlov, S.A. Lynch,Th. Greenland, K.L. Litvinenko, B. Murdin, B. Redlich, A.F.G. van der Meer, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, R.Kh. Zhukavin, V.N. Shastin
Isotope Effect on the Lifetime of the 2p0 State in Phosphorus-Doped Silicon.
PHYS REV B 88 (2013) 035201

A.A. Ezhevskii, S.A. Popkov, A.V. Soukhorukov, D.V. Guseinov, V.A. Gavva, A.V. Gusev, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann
Monoisotopic Silicon 28 in Spin Resonance Spectroscopy of Electrons Localized at Donors.
SEMICONDUCT47 (2013) 203 - 208

K. Saeedi, S. Simmons, J.Z. Salvail, P. Dluhy, H. Riemann, N.V. Abrosimov, P. Becker, H.-J. Pohl, J.J.L. Morton, M.L.W. Thewalt
Room-Temperature Quantum Bit Storage Exceeding 39 Minutes Using Ionized Donors in Silicon 28.
SCIENCE 342 (2013) 830 - 833

K.A. Kovalevsky, R.Kh. Zhukavin, V.V. Tsyplenkov, V.N. Shastin, N.V. Abrosimov, H. Riemann, S.G. Pavlov, H.-W. Hübers
Shallow-Donor Lasers in Uniaxially Stressed Silicon.
SEMICONDUCT 47 (2013) 235 - 241


N. Abrosimov, J. Fischer, M. renner, H. Riemann
Method and Apparatus for Producing Single Crystals of Semiconductor Material.
German Patent and Trademark Office 2011-06-01, European Patent Office 2012-10-03, United States Patent and Trademark Office 2012-11-15, World Intellectual Property Organization 2011-06-03
DE 102010052522 A1DE 102010052522 B4,  EP2504470 A1US20120285369 A1WO2011063795 A1

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