Working Group Oxides & Fluorides - Summary

The main task of this group relates to investigations of bulk crystal growth, in particular from the melt with diameters up to two inches and to single crystalline fibers with diameters of about 1 mm.

The scope of this group’s work is essentially defined by external requests and orders. As a part of our own fundamental research, new material systems are being explored, which often require comprehensive studies of melting and crystallization behavior. But also mature material systems sometimes demand detailed studies to reveal yet new properties for specific requirements. The working group Oxide & Fluorides is focussiong mainly on the areas: Transparent Semiconduction Oxides, High-Temperature Piezoelectric Materials, Perovskites.

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Transparent Semiconduction Oxides

Transparent semiconducting oxides (TSOs) constitute an emerging class of wide bandgap oxide semiconductors with a wide spectrum of applications in electronics, optoelectronics, detection, security and environmental control systems. High thermal instability of the TSOs at high temperatures and high melting points of the materials require unique approaches and methods to obtain bulk single crystals. Truly bulk TSO single crystals being grown in the group include β-Ga2O3, In2O3, SnO2, MgGa2O4, BaSnO3, and InGaZnO4. The availability of bulk TSO single crystals combined with the exploration of bulk and surface properties allows for designing novel devices of unprecedented functionality. 
So far, the activities in this field-initiated more than 20 national and international cooperations. Furthermore, they are a basic part of the Leibniz Science Campus GraFOx.

High-Temperature Piezoelectric Materials

Piezoelectric components have great potential for a variety of applications at elevated temperatures. The mass susceptibility of resonant sensors, for example, enable sensing of gases and soot particles thus helping to increase efficiency and environmental compatibility of energy conversion processes. Actuators can create ultrasonic waves for in-situ surveillance of structural components.
Understanding of the origin and consequent minimization of losses in piezoelectric transducer crystals is a key issue in the development of new devices. Our activities in this field are focussed on crystals of langasite (La3Ga5SiO14) structure type. In cooperation with our partners, we investigate structure−property relations and contribute to improving the basis for the development of new sensors and actuators.

Perovskites

Oxide crystals from the structurally related family of the perovskites exhibit a diversity of properties. They cover the full spectrum of electronic properties. They can be insulating as well as semiconducting and even superconducting. This family also includes oxides that are magnetic, ferroelectric, or even both at the same time. The most important challenge consists in the preparation of these materials with suitable perfection and properties to be fully utilized in electronic devices. In general, these devices are realized with epitaxial layers. Therefore, high demands for structural perfection first focus on substrate crystals for such layers.
Almost all known oxidic perovskite substrate crystals with a (pseudo cubic) lattice constant of up to 3.90 Å are grown in this group. For SrTiO3 (3.90 Å), well known for decades, a new growth technology was developed in the context of an SAW project. It allowed a qualitative jump, which makes this material now interesting for modern applications. First, a joint development with Cornell University (USA) and the FZ Jülich made oxidic perovskite substrates above 3.90 Å accessible: the rare-earth scandates (REScO3 with RE = Dy-Pr), whose lattice constants are between 3.94 and 4.02 Å. These crystals have been grown exclusively at the Leibniz Institute of Crystal Growth until today. Recent developments include the first time growth of perovskite substrates for the range 4.02 to 4.18 Å

Key Publications

D. G. Schlom, L. Q. Chen, C. J. Fennie, V. Gopalan, D. A. Muller, X. Pan, R. Ramesh, R. Uecker
Elastic Strain Engineering of Ferroic Oxides.
MRS BULLETIN 39 (2014) 118 - 130
doi:10.1557/mrs.2014.1

R. Uecker, B. Velickov, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, M. Bernhagen, M. Rabe, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari, D. G. 
Schlom
Properties of Rare-Earth Scandate Single Crystals (Re = Nd-Dy).
J CRYST GROWTH 310 (2008) 2649-2658
doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.01.019

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, 
A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Steiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, D. G. Schlom
Room-Temperature Ferroelectricity in Strained SrTiO3.
NATURE 430 (2004) 758 - 761
doi:10.1038/nature02773

Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Uecker, M. Pietsch, R. Bertram, M. Naumann, A. Kwasniewski, R. Schewski, M. Bickermann
MgGa2O4 as a New Wide Bandgap Transparent Semiconducting Oxide - Growth and Properties of Bulk Single Crystals. 
PHYS Status Solidi A 212 (2015) 1455 - 1460
doi:10.1002/pssa.201431835

C. Guguschev, Z. Galazka , D. J. Kok , U. Juda , A. Kwasniewski, R. Uecker
Growth of SrTiO3 Bulk Single Crystals Using Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth and the Czochralski Methods. 
CRYSTENGCOMM 17 (2015) 4662 - 4668
doi: 10.1039/C5CE00798D

C. Guguschev, D. J. Kok, Z. Galazka , D. Klimm , R. Uecker , R. Bertram , M. Naumann , U. Juda , A. Kwasniewski, M. Bickermann
Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on SrTiO3 Bulk Crystal Growth from Non-Stoichiometric Melts. 
CRYSTENGCOMM 17 (2015) 3224 - 3234.
doi:10.1039/C5CE00095E 

Z. Galazka,K. Irmscher, R. Uecker, R. Bertram, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, M. Naumann, T. Schulz, R. Schewski, D. Klimm, M. Bickermann
On the Bulk Beta-Ga2O3 Single Crystals Grown by the Czochralski Method. 
J CRYST GROWTH 404 (2014) 184 - 191
doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2014.07.021

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, R. Fornari
A Novel Crystal Growth Technique from the Melt: Levitation-Assisted Self-Seeding Crystal Growth Method. 
J CRYST GROWTH 388 (2014) 61 - 69 
doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2013.11.049

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Pietsch, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, A. Kwasniewski, S. Ganschow, D. Schulz, C. Guguschev, R. Bertram, M. Bickermann, R.Fornari
Growth, Characterization, and Properties of Bulk SnO2 Single Crystals.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 211 (2014) 66 - 73
doi:10.1002/pssa.201330020/abstract

D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, D. Schulz, R.  Fornari
The Growth of ZnO Crystals from the Melt.
J CRYST GROWTH 310 (2008) 3009 - 3013
doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.02.027

S. Ganschow, D. Klimm, R. Bertram
On the Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Chromium Distribution Coefficient in Melt-Grown Ruby Crystals
J CRYST GROWTH 325 (2011) 81-84
doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2011.04.033

S. Ganschow, D. Schulz, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, R. Uecker
Application of Predominance Diagrams in Melt Growth of Oxides. 
CRYST RES TECHNOL 45 (2010) 1219 - 1224
doi:10.1002/crat.201000358/pdf 

Working Group Oxides & Fluorides - Methods

The crystals are mainly grown from the melt or melt solution. The Czochralski method, the most important technology for the production of bulk single crystals of high structural perfection serves as the standard method. Using this method, crystals are grown of a maximum of 150 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter.

Our growth techniques include:


for bulk crystals

  • Czochralski
  • Edge-defined film-fed growth
  • Bridgman/VGF
  • Levitation-Assisted Self-Seeding Crystal Growth Method
  • Flux and TSSG-method (melt solution)
  • Physical Vapor Transport (gas phase)

for fibers

  • Micro-Pulling Down

Working Group Oxides & Fluorides - Publications

J. Schwarzkopf, D. Braun, M. Hanke, R. Uecker, M. Schmidbauer
Strain Engineering of Ferrolectric Domains in KxNa1-xNbO3 Epitaxial Layers
FRONTIERS IN MATERIALS 4 (2017) Art. 26
doi: 10.3389/fmats.2017.00026

P. S. Miedema, R. Mitzner, S. Ganschow, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye
X-ray spectroscopy on the active ion in laser crystals 
PHYS CHEM CHEM PHYS 19 (2017) 21800 - 21806
doi.10.1039/c7cp03026f

C. V. Chandran, K. Volgmann, S. Nakhal, R. Uecker, E.  Witt, M. Lerch, P. Heitjans
Local Ion Dynamics in Polycrystalline ß-LiGa02: A Solid-State NMR Study 
Z PHYS CHEM 231 (2017) 1443 - 1453
doi:10.1515/zpch-2016-0920

D. Klimm, C. Guguschev, D. J. Kok,  M. Naumann, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, M. Peltz, K. Dupré, M. D. Neumann, A. Kwasniewski, D. G. Schlom, M. Bickermann
Crystal growth and characterization of the pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7
CRYSTENGCOM 19 (2017) 3908 - 3914
doi: 10.1039/c7ce00942a

L. Porz, T. Swamy, B. W. Sheldon, D. Rettenwander, T. Frömling, H. L. Thaman, S. Berendts, R. Uecker, W. C. Carter, Y.-M. Chiang
Mechanism of Lithium Metal Penetration through Inorganic Solid Electrolytes
ADV ENERGY MATER (2017) 1701003
doi:10.1002/aenm.201701003

U. Demirbas, R. Uecker, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Leitenstorfer
Multicolor lasers using birefringent filters: experimental demonstration with Cr:Nd:GSGG and Cr:LiSAF
OPT EXPRESS 25 (2017) 2594 - 2607
doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.002594

H. Riesen, A. Rebane, R. Papakutty Rajan, W. Hutchison, S. Ganschow, A. Szabo
Ultra-slow light propagation by self-induced transparency in ruby in the superhyperfine limit
OPT LETT 42 (2017) 1871 - 1874
doi.org/10.1364/OL.42.001871

M. F. Acosta, R. I. Merino, S. Ganschow,  D. Klimm 
Solidification of NaCl–LiF–CaF2 ternary composites
J MATER SCI 52 (2017) 5520 – 5530
doi.10.1007/s10853-017-0814-2

 T. Hirsch, R. Uecker, D. Klimm
Reevaluation of phase relations in the chemical system neodymium lutetium oxide NdLuO3 
CRYST RES TECHNOL 52 (2017) 1600237
doi.10.1002/crat.201600237

H. Riesen, A. Rebane, R. P. Rajan, W. Hutchison, S. Ganschow, A. Szabo
Ultra-Slow Light Propagation by Self-Induced Transparency in Ruby in the Superhyperfine Limit
OPT LETT 42 (2017) 1871 - 1874
doi.org/10.1364/OL.42.001871

U. Demirbas, R. Uecker, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Leitenstorfer
Multicolor Lasers Using Birefringent Filters: Experimental Demonstration with Cr:Nd:GSGG and Cr:LiSAF
OPT EXPRESS 25 (2017) 2594 - 2607
doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.002594

T. Yerebakan, U. Demirbas, S. Eggert, R. Bertram, P. Reiche,  A. Leitenstorfer    
Red-Diode-Pumped Cr:Nd:GSGG Laser: Two-Colormode-Locked Operation
J OPT SOC AM B 34 (2017) 1023 - 1032
doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.34.001023

P. Fielitz, K. Kelm, R. Bertram, A. H. Chokshi, G. Borchardt
Aluminium-26 Grain Boundary Diffusion in Pure and Y-Doped Polycrystalline a-Alumina
ACTA MATER 127 (2017) 302 - 311    
doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2017.01.005

M. F. Acosta, R. I. Merino, S. Ganschow,  D. Klimm
Solidification of NaCl–LiF–CaF2 Ternary Composites
J MATER SCI 52 (2017) 5520 – 5530
doi: 10.1007/s10853-017-0814-2

R. Uecker, R. Bertram, M. Brützam, Z. Galazka, T. M. Gesing, C. Guguschev, D. Klimm, M. Klupsch, A. Kwasniewski, D. G. Schlom
Large-Lattice-Parameter Perovskite Single-Crystal Substrates
J CRYST GROWTH 457 (2017) 137 - 142    
doi.10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.03.014 

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, K. Irmscher, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, A. Kwasniewski, M. Naumann, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, U. Juda, A. Fiedler, M. Albrecht,S. Ganschow, T. Markurt, C. Guguschev, M. Bickermann
Melt Growth and Properties of Bulk BaSnO3 Single Crystals
J PHYS-CONDENS MAT 29 (2017) 075701
doi: org/10.1088/1361-648X/aa50e2

J. Haeberle, S. Brizzi, D. Gaspar, P. Barquinha, Z. Galazka, D. Schulz, D.  Schmeißer
A Spectroscopic Comparison of IGZO Thin Films and the Parent In2O3, Ga2O3, and ZnO Single Crystals
MATER RES EXPRESS 3 (2016) 106302
doi: org/10.1088/2053-1591/3/10/106302

M. Handwerg, R Mitdank, Z. Galazka, S. F. Fischer
Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity of a Mg-Doped Insulating β-Ga2O3 Single Crystal Along [100], [010] and [001]
SEMICOND SCI TECHNOL 31 (2016) 125006
doi:org/10.1088/0268-1242/31/12/125006

K. D. Chabak,. N. Moser, A. J. Green, D. E. Walker, Jr.,S. E. Tetlak, E. Heller, A. Crespo, R. Fitch, J. P. Mc Candless, K. Leedy,  M. Baldini, G. Wagner, Z. Galazka, X. Li, G. Jessen
Enhancement-Mode Ga2O3 Wrap-Gate Fin Field-Effect Transistors on Native (100) β-Ga2O3 Substrate with High Breakdown Voltage
APPL PHYS LETT 109 (2016) 213501
doi: org/10.1063/1.4967931

G. Calvert, C. Guguschev, A. Burger, A. Groza, J. Derby,  R.S. Feigelson
High Speed Growth of SrI2 Scintillator Crystals by the EFG Process
J CRYST GROWTH 455 (2016)  143 - 151
doi: org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.10.024

J. Philippen, C. Guguschev, D. Klimm    
Single Crystal Fiber Growth of Cerium Doped Strontium Yttrate, SrY2O4:Ce3+
J CRYST GROWTH 459 (2017) 17 - 22
doi: org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.11.033

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, M. Bickermann
Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method
ECS J SOLID STATE SCI TECHN 6 (2017) Q3007 - Q3011
doi: org/10.1149/2.0021702jss

Y. Suhak, M. Schulz, H. Wulfmeier, W.L. Johnson, A. Sotnikov, H. Schmidt, S. Ganschow, D. Klimm, H. Fritze
Langasite-Type Resonant Sensors for Harsh Environments.
MRS ADVANCES 21 (2016) 1513 - 1518
doi: org/10.1557/adv.2016.109

M. Feneberg, J. Nixdorf, C. Lidig, R. Goldhahn, Z. Galazka, O. Bierwagen, J.S. Speck
Many-Electron Effects on the Dielectric Function of Cubic In2O3: Effective Electron Mass, Band-Nonparabolicity, and Burstein-Moss Shift.
PHYS REV B 93 (2016) 045203
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.045203

L.A. King, Q. Yang, M.L. Grossett, Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, B.A. Parkinson
Photosensitization of Natural and Synthetic SnO2 Single Crystals with Dyes and Quantum Dots.
J PHYS CHEM C 120 (2016) 15735 – 15742
doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b11071

C. Cocchi, H. Zschiesche, D. Nabok, A. Mogilatenko, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, H. Kirmse, C. Draxl, C.T. Koch
Atomic Signatures of Local Environment from Core-Level Spectroscopy in β-Ga2O3.
PHYS REV B 94 (2016) 075147
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.075147

D. Wiedemann, S. Indris, M. Meven, B. Pedersen, H.  Boysen, R. Uecker, P. Heitjans, M. Lerch
Single-Crystal Neutron Diffraction on γ-LiAlO2: Structure Determination and Estimation of Lithium Diffusion Pathway.
Z KRISTALLOGR 231 (2016) 189 – 193
doi: 10.1515/zkri-2015-1896

B. Burganov, C. Adamo, A. Mulder, M. Uchida, P. D. C. King, J. W. Harter, D. E. Shai, A. S. Gibbs, A. P. Mackenzie, R. Uecker, M. Bruetzam, M. R. Beasley, C. J. Fennie, D. G. Schlom, K. M. Shen    
Strain Control of Fermiology and Many-Body Interactions in Two-Dimensional Ruthenates.
PHYS REV LETT 116 (2016) 197003
doi:org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.197003

V. Scherer, Ch. Janowitz1, Z. Galazka, M. Nazarzadehmoafi, R. Manzke
Polaron Character of the Near-EF Band of Cleaved In2O3(111) Single Crystals.
EPL Journal 113 (2016) 26003 p1 - p6
doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/113/26003

Y. Choa, S. Sadofeva, S. Fernández-Garridoa, R.  Calarcoa, H. Riechert, Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, O. Brandt
Impact of Substrate Nitridation on the Growth of InN on In2O3(111) Byplasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy.
APPL SURF SCI 369 (2016) 159 - 162
doi:org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.01.268

A.J. Green, K.D. Chabak, E.R. Heller, R.C. Fitch, M. Baldini, A. Fiedler, K. Irmscher, G. Wagner, Z. Galazka,
S.E. Tetlak, A. Crespo, K. Leedy, G. H. Jessen
3.8-MV/cm Breakdown Strength of MOVPE-Grown Sn-Doped β-Ga2O3 MOSFETs.
IEEE ELECTR DEVICE L 37 (2016) 902 - 905
doi: 10.1109/LED.2016.2568139

S. Höfer, R. Uecker, A. Kwasniewski, J. Popp, Th. G. Mayerhöfer
Complete Dispersion Analysis of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthosilicate.        
VIB SPECTROSC 83 (2016) 151 – 158            
doi.org/10.1016/j.vibspec.2016.01.004

F. Kamutzki, C. Guguschev, D.J. Kok, R. Bertram, U. Juda, R. Uecker
The influence of oxygen partial pressure in the growth atmosphere on the coloration of SrTiO3 single crystal fibers.
CrystEngComm 18 (2016) 5658-5666
DOI: 10.1039/C6CE01109H

S. Ganschow, A. Kwasniewski, D. Klimm
Conditions for the Growth of Fe1−xO Crystals Using the Micro-Pulling-Down Technique.
J. Crystal Growth 450 (2016) 203-206
doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.06.033

D.J. Kok, C. Guguschev, T. Markurt, M. Niu, R. Bertram, M. Albrecht, K. Irmscher
Origin of Brown Coloration in Top-Seeded Solution Grown SrTiO3 Crystals.
CRYSTENGCOMM 18 (2016) 4580 - 4586 
doi:10.1039/C6CE00247A

F. Langhans, S. Kiefer, C. Hartmann1, T. Markurt, T. Schulz, C. Guguschev, M. Naumann, S. Kollowa, A. Dittmar, J. Wollweber, M. Bickermann
Precipitates Originating from Tungsten Crucible Parts in AlN Bulk Crystals Grown by the PVT Method.
CRYST RES TECHNOL 51 (2016) 129 - 136
doi:10.1002/crat.201500201

E. Korhonen, V. Prozheeva, F. Tuomisto, O. Bierwagen, J. S. Speck, M. E. White, Z. Galazka, H. Liu, N. Izyumskaya, V. Avrutin, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç
Cation Vacancies and Electrical Compensation in Sb-Doped Thin-Film SnO2 and ZnO.
SEMICOND SCI TECH 30 (2015) 024011
doi:10.1088/0268-1242/30/024011

E. Korhonen, F. Tuomisto, D. Gogova, G. Wagner, M. Baldini, Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht
Electrical Compensation by Ga Vacancies in Ga2O3 Thin Films.
APPL PHYS LETT 106 (2015) 242103
doi: 10.1063/1 4922814

Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Uecker, M.Pietsch, R.Bertram, M. Naumann, M. Albrecht, A. Kwasniewski, R. Schewski, M. Bickermann
MgGa2O4 as a New Wide Bandgap Transparent Semiconducting Oxide: Growth and Properties of Bulk Single Crystals.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A  212 (2015) 1455 - 1460
doi:10.1002/pssa.201431835

L. Schwarz, Z. Galazka, T. M. Gesing, D. Klimm
On the Influence of Inversion on Thermal Properties of Magnesium Gallium Spinel.
CRYST RES TECHNOL 12 (2015) 961 - 966
doi:10.1002/crat.201500275/abstract

R. Schewski, G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova , Z.  Glazaka, R. Uecker, T. Schulz, T. Remmele, T. Markurt, H. von Wenckstern, M. Grundmann, O. Bierwagen, P. Vogt, M. Albrecht
Epitaxial Stabilization of Pseudomorphic α-Ga2O3 on Sapphire (0001).
APPL PHYS EXPRESS 8 (2015) 011101
doi:10.7567/APEX.8.011101

A. Papadogianni, M. E. White, J. S. Speck, Z. Galazka, O. Bierwagen
Hall and Seebeck Measurements Estimate the Thickness of a (Buried) Carrier System: Identifying Interface Electrons in In-Doped SnO2 Films.
APPL PHYS LETT 107 (2015) 252105
doi:org/10.1063/1.4938471

A. Navarro-Quezada, S. Alamé, N. Esser, J. Furthmüller, F. Bechstedt, Z. Galazka, D. Skuridina, P. Vogt
Near Valence-Band Electronic Structure of Semiconducting β-Ga2O3 (100) Single Crystals.
PHYS REV B 92 (2015) 195306
doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.92.195306

A. Navarro-Quezada, Z. Galazka, S. Alamé, D. Skuridina, P. Vogt, N. Esser
Surface Properties of Annealed Semiconducting β-Ga2O3 (100) Single Crystals for Epitaxy.
APPL SURF SCI 349 (2015) 368 - 373
doi: 10.1016apusc2015.04.225

P. W. Metz, D.-T. Marzahl, C. Guguschev, R. Bertram, C. Kränkel, G. Huber 
Growth and Diode-Pumped Laser Operation of Pr3+:β-(Y0.5,Gd0.5)F3 at Various Transitions.
OPT LETT 40 (2015) 2699 - 2702
doi: 10.1364/OL.40.002699

D. J. Kok, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, C. Guguschev,  Z. Galazka, R. Uecker
Temperature-Dependent Optical Absorption of SrTiO3. 
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 212 (2015) 1880 - 1887
doi: 10.1002/pssa.201431836

M. Handwerg, R. Mitdank, Z. Galazka, S. F. Fischer
Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity in Mg-Doped and Undoped β-Ga2O3 Bulk-Crystals.
SEMICOND SCI TECH 30 (2015) 024006 
doi:10.1088/0268-1242/302/024006

C. Guguschev, R. Tagle, U. Juda, A. Kwasniewski
Microstructural Investigations of SrTiO3 Single Crystals and Polysilicon Using a Powerful New X-Ray Diffraction Surface Mapping Technique.
J APPL CRYST 48 (2015) 1883 - 1888
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715019949

C. Guguschev, Z. Galazka , D. J. Kok , U. Juda , A. Kwasniewski, R. Uecker
Growth of SrTiO3 Bulk Single Crystals Using Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth and the Czochralski Methods. 
CRYSTENGCOMM 17 (2015) 4662 - 4668
doi: 10.1039/C5CE00798D

C. Guguschev, D. J. Kok, Z. Galazka , D. Klimm , R. Uecker , R. Bertram , M. Naumann , U. Juda , A. Kwasniewski, M. Bickermann
Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on SrTiO3 Bulk Crystal Growth from Non-Stoichiometric Melts. 
CRYSTENGCOMM 17 (2015) 3224 - 3234.
doi:10.1039/C5CE00095E 

D. Braun, V. Scherer, C. Janowitz, Z. Galazka, R. Fornari, R. Manzke
In-Gap States of In2O3 Single Crystals Investigated by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy. 
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI 211 (2014) 59 - 65
doi:10.1002/pssa.201330089

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, R. Fornari
A Novel Crystal Growth Technique from the Melt. Levitation-Assisted Self-Seeding Crystal Growth Method. 
J CRYST GROWTH 388 (2014) 61 - 69
doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2013.11.049

M. Albrecht, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, Z. Galazka, T. Markurt, M. Naumann, T. Schulz, R. Uecker, R. Fornari, S. Meuret and M. Kociak
Coloration and Oxygen Vacancies in Wide Band Gap Oxide Semiconductors. Absorption at Metallic Nanoparticles Induced by Vacancy Clustering. A Case Study on Indium Oxide.
J APPL PHYS 115 (2014) 053504
doi:10.1063/1.4863211

M.F. Acosta, S. Ganschow, D. Klimm, S. Serrano-Zabaleta, A. Larrea, R.I. Merino
Directional Solidification of the Eutectic LiF--LiYF4 Using Bridgman and Micro-Pulling Down Techniques. Microstructural Study and Some Properties.
J EUR CERAM SOC 34 (2014) 2051 - 2059
doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.09.010

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Pietsch, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, A. Kwasniewski, S. Ganschow, D. Schulz, C. Guguschev, R. Bertram, M. Bickermann, R. Fornari
Growth, Characterization and Properties of Bulk SnO2 Single Crystals.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI 211 (2014) 66 - 73
doi:10.1002/pssa.201330020

U. Demirbas, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert
Intra-Cavity Frequency-Doubled Cr:LiCAF Laser with 265mW Continuous-Waveblue (395–405 nm) Output.
OPT COMMUN 320 (2014) 38 - 42
doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2014.01.045

K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, T. Schulz, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari
On the Nature and Temperature Dependence of the Fundamental Band Gap of In2O3.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI 211 (2014) 54 - 58
doi:10.1002/pssa.201330184

J. Haeberle, M. Richter, Z. Galazka, C. Janowitz, D. Schmeißer
Resonant Photoemission at the O1s Threshold to Characterize In2O3 Single Crystals.
THIN SOLID FILMS 555 (2014) 53 - 56
doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2013.03.036

P. Fielitz, G. Borchardt, S. Ganschow, R. Bertram, R.A. Jackson, H. Fritze, K.-D. Becker
Tantalum and Niobium Diffusion in Single Crystalline Lithium Niobate.
SOLID STATE IONICS 259 (2014) 14 - 20
doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2014.02.005

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