Working Group Physical Characterization - Summary

The group Physical Characterization investigates bulk crystals and epitaxial layers grown at Leibniz Institut for Crystal Growth by using x-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy and imaging, electrical measurements, and related techniques. These methods provide information on the real structure of crystals, on strain states in epitaxial films, on the distribution of dislocations and precipitations, on electrical conductivity including the concentration and mobility of charge carriers as well as on the identification and quantification of point defects and revealing their influences on optical and electrical properties. On the one hand, the information is used to optimize growth processes. On the other hand, it contributes to a better understanding of basic and application relevant crystal properties.

Additionally, as an external service, we offer an x-ray determination of the crystal orientation and crystal phases, the measurement of optical transmittance in the wavelength range from 120 nm to 2.5 µm, the determination of the electrical properties of semiconductor crystals, the infrared spectroscopic analysis of impurities (e.g. oxygen, carbon or nitrogen in silicon) or the imaging of decorated dislocation networks over macroscopic crystal regions using laser scattering tomography.

key publications

M. Schmidbauer, D. Braun, T. Markurt, M. Hanke, and J. Schwarzkopf
Strain Engineering of Monoclinic Domains in K0.9Na0.1NbO3 Epitaxial Layers: A Pathway to Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties
Nanotechnology 28 (2017) 24LT02


M. Schmidbauer, M. Hanke, A. Kwasniewski, D. Braun, L. von Helden, C. Feldt, S. J. Leake, and J. Schwarzkopf
Scanning X-Ray Nanodiffraction from Ferroelectric Domains in Strained K0.75Na0.25NbO3 Epitaxial Films Grown on (110) TbScO3
J. Appl. Cryst. 50 (2017) 519


K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, T. Schulz, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, and R. Fornari
On the nature and temperature dependence of the fundamental band gap of In2O3
Physica status solidi (a) 211 (2014) 54


K. Irmscher, C. Hartmann, C. Guguschev, M. Pietsch, J. Wollweber, and M. Bickermann
Identification of a tri-carbon defect and its relation to the ultraviolet absorption in aluminum nitride
Journal of Applied Physics 114 (2013) 123505


M. Schmidbauer, J. Schwarzkopf and A. Kwasniewski
High-Precision Absolute Lattice-Parameter Determination of SrTiO3, DyScO3 and NdGaO3 Single Crystals
Acta Cryst. B68 (2012) 8


K. Irmscher, Z. Galazka, M. Pietsch, R. Uecker, and R. Fornari
Electrical properties of b-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method
Journal of Applied Physics 110 (2011) 063720

Working Group Physical Characterization - Methods

X-ray diffraction

  • High-resolution diffractometry
  • Reflectometry
  • Powder diffraction
  • Texture determination
  • Topography
  • Crystal orientation
  • Rocking curve mapping
  • Diffuse scattering using synchrotron radiation (ESRF, BESSY, DESY)


Optical imaging techniques

  • Laser Scattering Tomography
  • Photoluminescence intensity distribution
  • Stress birefringence
  • NIR transmission imaging
  • Spectral transmission at temperatures up to 1600 °C



  • Transmittance/Reflectance (VUV - FIR)
  • Photoluminescence
  • Micro Raman scattering
  • Photothermal ionization
  • Electron paramagnetic resonance


 Electrical measurements

  • Conductivity/Hall effect
  • Capacitance spectroscopy (DLTS including C-V/C-f/I-V characteristics)
  • Charge carrier lifetime (µ-PCD)
  • lateral-photovoltage-scanning (LPS)


Microscopy and etching techniques

  • VIS-/IR-/Fluorescence microscopy
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
  • Defect etching, EPD, phase boundary

Working Group Physical Characterization - Publications

J. Schwarzkopf, D. Braun, M. Hanke, R. Uecker, M. Schmidbauer
Strain Engineering of Ferrolectric Domains in KxNa1-xNbO3 Epitaxial Layers
doi: 10.3389/fmats.2017.00026

D. Klimm, C. Guguschev, D. J. Kok,  M. Naumann, L. Ackermann, D. Rytz, M. Peltz, K. Dupré, M. D. Neumann, A. Kwasniewski, D. G. Schlom, M. Bickermann
Crystal growth and characterization of the pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7
CRYSTENGCOM 19 (2017) 3908 - 3914
doi: 10.1039/c7ce00942a

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tüttó, A. Klix, D. Gehre
β-Ga2O3 Solid-State Devices for Fast Neutron Detection
IEEE TRANS NUCL SCI 64 (2017) 1574 - 1579

D. Braun, M. Schmidbauer, M. Hanke, A. Kwasniewski, J. Schwarzkopf
Tunable ferroelectric domain wall alignment in strained monoclinic KxNa1-xNbO3 epitaxial films
APPL PHYS LETT 110 (2017)  232903

M. Schmidbauer, D. Braun, T. Markurt, M. Hanke, J. Schwarzkopf
Strain Engineering of Monoclinic Domains in KxNa1-xNbO3 Epitaxial Layers: A Pathway to Enhanced Piezoelectric Properties
NANOTECHNOLOGY 28 (2017)  24LT02

Yu. I. Mazur, V. G. Dorogan, L. Dias, D. Fan, M. Schmidbauer, M. E. Ware, Z. Ya. Zhuchenko, S. S. Kurlov, G. G. Tarasov, S.–Q. Yu, G. E. Marques, G. J. Salamo
Luminescent properties of GaAsBi /GaAs double quantum well heterostructures
J LUMIN 188 (2017) 209 - 216

M. Schmidbauer, M. Hanke, A. Kwasniewski, D. Braun, L. von Helden, C. Feldt, S. J. Leake, J. Schwarzkopf
Scanning X-Ray Nanodiffraction from Ferroelectric Domains in Strained K0.75Na0.25NbO3 Epitaxial Films Grown on (110) TbScO3
J APPL CRYST 50 (2017)  519 - 525

S. Sintonen, S. Wahl , S. Richter, S. Meyer, S. Suihkonen, T. Schulz, K. Irmscher, A. N. Danilewsky, T. O. Tuomi, R. Stankiewicz, M. Albrecht
Evolution of Impurity Incorporation During Ammonothermal Growth of GaN        
J CRYST GROWTH 456 (2016) 51 - 57
doi: org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.08.044

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, M. Bickermann
Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method
ECS J SOLID STATE SCI TECHN 6 (2017) Q3007 - Q3011
doi: org/10.1149/2.0021702jss

R. Uecker, R. Bertram, M. Brützam, Z. Galazka, T. M. Gesing, C. Guguschev, D. Klimm, M. Klupsch, A. Kwasniewski, D. G. Schlom
Large-Lattice-Parameter Perovskite Single-Crystal Substrates
J CRYST GROWTH 457 (2017) 137 - 142    

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, K. Irmscher, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, A. Kwasniewski, M. Naumann, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, U. Juda, A. Fiedler, M. Albrecht,S. Ganschow, T. Markurt, C. Guguschev, M. Bickermann
Melt Growth and Properties of Bulk BaSnO3 Single Crystals
J PHYS-CONDENS MAT 29 (2017) 075701
doi: org/10.1088/1361-648X/aa50e2

M. Baldini, M. Albrecht, A. Fiedler, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, G. Wagner
Si- and Sn-Doped Homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3 Layers Grown by MOVPE on (010)-Oriented Substrates
ECS J SOLID STAT SCI TECHN 6 (2016) Q1-Q5             
doi: org/10.1149/2.0081702jss

B. Cai, J. Schwarzkopf, E. Hollmann, D. Braun, M. Schmidbauer, T. Grellmann,R. Wördenweber
Electronic Characterization of Polar Nanoregions in Relaxor-Type Ferroelectric NaNbO3 Films.
PHYS REV B 93 (2016) 224107
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.224107

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, J. Horvat, M. J. B. Nancarrow, M. Henini, D. Fan, Y. I. Mazur, M. Schmidbauer, M. E. Ware, S.-Q. Yu,  G. J. Salamo
Surface Effects of Vapour-Liquid-Solid Driven Bi Surface Droplets Fromed During Molecular-Beam-Epitaxy of GaAsBi.
SCI REPORTS 6 (2016) 28860
doi: 10.1038/srep28860

A.J. Green, K.D. Chabak, E.R. Heller, R.C. Fitch, M. Baldini, A. Fiedler, K. Irmscher, G. Wagner, Z. Galazka,
S.E. Tetlak, A. Crespo, K. Leedy, G. H. Jessen
3.8-MV/cm Breakdown Strength of MOVPE-Grown Sn-Doped β-Ga2O3 MOSFETs.
IEEE ELECTR DEVICE L 37 (2016) 902 - 905
doi: 10.1109/LED.2016.2568139

M. Baldini, M. Albrecht, A. Fiedler, K. Irmscher, D. Klimm, R. Schewski, G. Wagner
Semiconducting Sn-Doped β-Ga2O3 Homoepitaxial Layers Grown by Metal Organic Vapour-Phase Epitaxy.
J Mater Sci 51 (2016) 3650 – 3656
doi: 10.1007/s10853-015-9693-6

S. Höfer, R. Uecker, A. Kwasniewski, J. Popp, Th. G. Mayerhöfer
Complete Dispersion Analysis of Single Crystal Yttrium Orthosilicate.        
VIB SPECTROSC 83 (2016) 151 – 158   

R.A. Kornev, P.G. Sennikov, D.A. Konychev, A.M. Potapov, D.Yu. Chuvilin, P.A. Yunin, S. A. Gusev, M. Naumann
Hydrogen Reduction of 98MoF6 in RF Discharge.
J Radioanal Nucl Chem 309 (2016) 833-840
DOI 10.1007/s10967-015-4687-z

S. Ganschow, A. Kwasniewski, D. Klimm
Conditions for the Growth of Fe1−xO Crystals Using the Micro-Pulling-Down Technique.
J. Crystal Growth 450 (2016) 203-206

C. Hartmann, J. Wollweber, S. Sintonen, A. Dittmar, L. Kirste, S. Kollowa, K. Irmscher, M. Bickermann
Preparation of Deep UV Transparent AlN Substrates with High Structural Perfection for Optoelectronic Devices.
CrystEngComm 18 (2016) 3488 - 3497
doi: 10.1039/c6ce00622a

D.J. Kok, C. Guguschev, T. Markurt, M. Niu, R. Bertram, M. Albrecht, K. Irmscher
Origin of Brown Coloration in Top-Seeded Solution Grown SrTiO3 Crystals.

F. Langhans, S. Kiefer, C. Hartmann, T. Markurt, T. Schulz, C. Guguschev, M. Naumann, S. Kollowa, A.  Dittmar, J. Wollweber, M. Bickermann
Precipitates Originating from Tungsten Crucible Parts in AlN Bulk Crystals Grown by the PVT Method.
CRYST RES TECHNOL 51 (2016) 129 - 136

J. Schwarzkopf, D. Braun, M. Hanke, A. Kwasniewski, J. Sellmann, M. Schmidbauer
Monoclinic MA Domains in Anisotropically Strained, Ferroelectric K0.75Na0.25NbO3 Films on (110) TbScO3 Grown by MOCVD.
J. Appl. Cryst. 49 (2016)  375 - 384    

F. Willems, C. Smeenk, N. Zhavoronkov, O. Kornilov, I. Radu, M. Schmidbauer, M. Hanke, C. von Korff Schmising, M.J.J. Vrakking, S. Eisebitt
Probing Ultrafast Spin Dynamics with High-Harmonic Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy.
PHYS REV B 92 (2015) 220405

G. Wang, M. Amman, H. Mei, D. Mei,  K. Irmscher, Y. Guan, G. Yang
Crystal Growth and Detector Performance of Large Size High-Purity Ge Crystals.
MAT SCI SEMICON PROC 39 (2015) 54 - 60

D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, A. Kwasniewski
Homo- and Heteroepitaxial Growth of Sn-Doped β-Ga2O3 Layers by MOVPE.
CRYSTENGCOMM 17 (2015) 6744 - 6752

Z. Galazka, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Uecker, M. Pietsch, R. Bertram, M. Naumann, M. Albrecht, A. Kwasniewski, R. Schewski, M. Bickermann
MgGa2O4 as a New Wide Bandgap Transparent Semiconducting Oxide: Growth and Properties of Bulk Single Crystals.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 212 (2015) 1455 - 1460

S. Höfer, R. Uecker, A. Kwasniewski, J. Popp, T.G. Mayerhöfer
Complete Dispersion Analysis of Single Crystalneodymium Gallate.
VIB SPECTROSC 78 (2015) 17 - 22

S. Höfer, R. Uecker, A. Kwasniewski, J. Popp, T.G. Mayerhöfer
Dispersion Analysis of Arbitrarily Cut Uniaxial Crystals.
VIB SPECTROSC 78 (2015) 23 - 33

D.J. Kok, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, C. Guguschev,  Z. Galazka, R. Uecker
Temperature-Dependent Optical Absorption of SrTiO3.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 212 (2015) 1880 - 1887

C. Guguschev, D.J. Kok, Z. Galazka , D. Klimm , R. Uecker , R. Bertram , M. Naumann , U. Juda , A. Kwasniewski, M. Bickermann
Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on SrTiO3 Bulk Crystal Growth from Non-Stoichiometric Melts.
CRYSTENGCOMM 17 (2015) 3224 - 3234

C. Guguschev, Z. Galazka , D.J. Kok , U. Juda , A. Kwasniewski, R. Uecker 
Growth of SrTiO3 Bulk Single Crystals Using Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth and the Czochralski Methods.
CRYSTENGCOMM 17 (2015) 4662 - 4668

C. Guguschev, R. Tagle, U. Juda, A. Kwasniewski
Microstructural Investigations of SrTiO3 Single Crystals and Polysilicon Using a Powerful New X-Ray Diffraction Surface Mapping Technique.
J APPL CRYSTALLOGR 48 (2015) 1883 - 1888
doi: 10.1107/S1600576715019949

S. Bin Anooz, P. Petrik, M. Schmidbauer, T. Remmele, J. Schwarzkopf
Refractive Index and Interband Transitions in Strain Modified NaNbO3 Thin Films Grown by MOCVD.
J PHYS D APPL PHYS 48 (2015) 385303

M. Albrecht, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, Z. Galazka, T. Markurt, M. Naumann, T. Schulz, R. Uecker, R. Fornari, S. Meuret and M. Kociak
Coloration and Oxygen Vacancies in Wide Band Gap Oxide Semiconductors: Absorption at Metallic Nanoparticles Induced by Vacancy Clustering - a Case Study on Indium Oxide.
J APPL PHYS 115 (2014) 053504

Y.I. Mazur, V. G. Dorogan, L. de Souza , D. Fan, M. Benamara, M. Schmidbauer, M.E. Ware, G.G. Tarasov, S.-Q. Yu, G.E. Marques, G.J. Salamo
Effect of AlGaAs Cladding Layers on the Luminescences of GaAs/GaAs1-xBix /GaAs Heterostructures.
NANOTECHNOLOGY 25 (2014) 035702

M. Schmidbauer, J. Sellmann, D. Braun, A. Kwasniewski, A. Duk, J. Schwarzkopf
Ferroelectric Domain Structure of NaNbO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Grown on (110) DyScO3 Substrates.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI-R 8 (2014) 522 - 526

M. Baldini, D. Gogova, K. Irmscher, M. Schmidbauer, G. Wagner and R. Fornari
Heteroepitaxy of Ga2(1-X)In2xO3 Layers by MOVPE with Two Different Oxygen Sources. 
CRYST RES TECHNOL 49 (2014) 552 - 557 

G. Wagner, M. Baldini, D. Gogova, M. Schmidbauer, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht, Z. Galazka, D.Klimm, R. Fornari
Homoepitaxial Growth of β-Ga2O3 Layers by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy. 
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 211 (2014) 27 - 31

Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, R. Uecker, R. Bertram, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, M. Naumann, T. Schulz, R. Schewski, D. Klimm, M. Bickermann
On the Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals Grown by the Czochralski Method. 
J CRYST GROWTH 404 (2014) 184 - 191 

K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, T. Schulz, R. Schewski, M. Albrecht and R. Fornari
On the Nature and Temperature Dependence of the Fundamental Band Gap of In2O3. 
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A  211 (2014) 54 - 58

D. Gogova, G. Wagner, M. Baldini, M. Schmidbauer, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, Z. Galazka, M. Albrecht and R. Fornari
Structural Properties of Si-Doped β-Ga2O3 Layers Grown by MOVPE. 
J CRYST GROWTH 401 (2014) 665 - 669

A. Mogilatenko, H. Kirmse, O. Bierwagen, M. Schmidbauer, M. Y. Tsai, I. Häusler, M. E. White, J. S. Speck
Effect of Heavy Ga Doping on Defect Structure of SnO2 Layers.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI A 211 (2014) 87 - 92

A. Duk, M. Schmidbauer, J. Schwarzkopf;
Anisotropic One-Dimensional Domain Pattern in NaNbO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Grown on (110) TbScO3. 
APPL PHYS LETT 102 (2013) 091903  

Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, R. Fornari;
Effect of Heat Treatment on Properties of Melt-Grown Bulk In2O3 Single Crystals. 
CRYSTENGCOMM 15 (2013) 2220 - 2226

Y.I. Mazur, V.G. Dorogan, M. Benamara, M.E. Ware, M. Schmidbauer, G.G. Tarasov, S.R. Johnson, X. Lu,S-Q. Yu, T. Tiedje, G. J. Salamo
Effect of Spatial Confinement and Layer Disorder in Photoluminescence of GaAs1-xBix/GaAs Nanostructures.
J PHYS D APPL PHYS 46 (2013) 065306

K. Irmscher, C. Hartmann, C. Guguschev, M. Pietsch, J. Wollweber, M. Bickermann
Identification of a Tri-Carbon Defect and Its Relation to the Ultraviolet Absorption in Aluminum Nitride.
J APPL PHYS 114  (2013) 123505

R. Wördenweber, J. Schwarzkopf, E. Hollmann, A. Duk, B. Cai, M. Schmidbauer
Impact of Compressive In-Plane Strain on the Ferroelectric Properties of Epitaxial NaNbOfilms on (110) NdGaO3. 
APPL PHYS LETT 103 (2013) 132908  

F. Katmis, M. Schmidbauer, S.M. Bokoch, P. Rodenbach, H. Riechert, R. Calarco
Long-Range Crystal-Lattice Distortion Fields of Epitaxial GeSbTe Phase-Change Materials.
PHYS STATUS SOLIDI B 251 (2013) 769 - 773

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, K Irmscher, D. Schulz, D. Klimm, M. Albrecht, M. Pietsch, S. Ganschow, A. Kwasniewski, R. Fornari
Melt Growth, Characterization and Properties of Bulk In2O3 Single Crystals.
J CRYST GROWTH 362 (2013) 349 - 352

Yu.I. Mazur, V.G. Dorogan, M. Schmidbauer, G.G. Tarasov, S.R. Johnson, X. Lu, M.E. Ware, S.-Q. Yu, T. Tiedje, and G.J. Salamo
Strong Excitation Intensity Dependence of the Photoluminescence Line Shape in GaAs1-xBix Single Quantum Well Samples.
J APPL PHYS 113 (2013) 144308

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